《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十八:状语从句

发布时间:2014-10-25 2:22:30
来源:分享查询网

第一章、状语从句(1) 状语从句(Adverbial Clauses)在四、六级、研究生入学考试以及各类应试中是一项比较重要的测试内容。引导状语从句的是一些连词,它们的位置比较灵活,可以置于句首,也可以置于句末。 1. 时间状语从句 (1) when引导的时间状语从句 ①.when引导的时间状语从句,其动词既可以是延续性动作的动词,也可以是瞬间性动作的动词,而且可以表示主句的动作和从句的动作同时发生,或者从句的动作发生在主句的动作之前。如:when you apply for a job, you must present your credentials.当你申请工作时,你必须递交你的有关证件。(同时)when the students heard the teacher’s footsteps, they all atopped talking.当学生们听到老师的脚步声时,他们都停止了讲话。(从句动作发生在前) ② when还可表示just then(正在那时,突然)的意思,此时其所引导的从句只放在主句之后。如:we were about to start when it began to rain.我们正要动身,突然天下起雨来。The game had hardly/scarcely/barely begun when it started raining.比赛刚刚开始就下起雨来。 (2) as引导的时间状语从句as引导的时间状语从句其动词的动作是延续性的,而且侧重表示主句和从句的动作并相发生:We were having breakfast as she was combing her hair. 她梳头时我们在吃早饭。It will warm up a little bit on Sunday as the cold front passes.寒流一过,星期日就会有点暖意了。 (3) while引导的时间状语从句while表示“在某一段时间里”或“在……期间”,其所引导的从句的动作是延续性的,并侧重表示和主句的动作同时发生。如:When the teacher paraphrased the text in English, the students listened attentively and took notes.当老师用英语解释课文时,学生们聚精会神地听并做着笔记。I can learn while I work. 我可以边工作边学习。 (4) before引导的时间状语从句 ① before“在……之前”I have finished my dissertation before my supervisor went abroad.在我的导师出国之前,我已完成了我的学位论文。I’ll be back before you have left.你离开之前我就会回来。 ② before“……之后才”It may be many years before we meet again.可能要过许多年我们才能再见了。It was three days before I came back.他三天后才回来。 (5) as soon as/once/directly/the instant等引导的时间状语从句as soon as 是最常见的表示“一……就”的从属连词,其他连词还有once,directly,immediately,instantly,the instant (that),the minute(that) ,the moment(that)等,它们通常都可与as soon as换用。如:As soon as we got home, the telephone rang.我们一到家,电话就响了。I recognized her immediately I saw her.我一看见她就认出她来了。Directly the teacher came in everyone was quiet.老师一进来,大家就静了下来。 (6) hardly...when/no sooner...than引导的时间状语从句关联从属连词hardly/barely/scarcely...when和no sooner...than的意思是“刚……就”,它们所引导的从句中的谓语动词通常为过去完成时。如:He had no sooner (no sooner had he)arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey.他刚一到家,就又要他出另一次差。No sooner had the words been spoken than he realized that he should have remained silent.这些话刚一出口,他就意识到自己应该保持沉默。 (7) since引导的时间状语从句在含有since引导的时间状语从句的复合句中,从句的谓语动词通常为一般过去时,主句的谓语动词通常为现在完成时、过去完成时和一般现在时: We’ve never met since we graduated from the college.大学毕业后我们就再没见过面。Great changes have taken place since you left.你走了以后,这里发生了巨大变化。 (8) till/until引导的时间状语从句 till和until同义,作“直到……时(为止)”解,till多用于非正式文体,until多用于句首。如:Donald will remain in college until(till) he finishes his Ph.D course. 唐纳德将留在学校直到完成他的博士学位课程。I won’t go with you until(till) I finished my homework. 等我做完作业我才和你一起去。 (9) whenever/each time/every time引导的时间状语从句whenever在引导时间状语从句时作“每当;每次”解,each time和every time与whenever同义,通常可以与它换用。如:The roof leaks whenever it rains. 每逢下雨屋顶就漏雨。Whenever certain chemicals are mixed together,heat is produced.某些化学物质被混到一起时,就会产生热。Whenever/ Every time/ Each time I met her, she was studying.我每次看见她时,她总是在学习。 2. 地点状语从句 (1) where引导的地点状语从句从属连词where“在(或到)……的地方”Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者事竟成。Put it where you found it. 把它放在原来的地方。 ① where 在地点状语从句中,除指地点外,还可指处境等。如:He said he was happy where he was.他说他对自己的处境很满意。It’s your fault that she is where she is.她今天落到这个地步都怪你。 ② 有时地点状语从句中的某些词可以省略。如:Fill in the blanks with the given phrases. Change the form where necessary.用所给的短语填空,必要的地方可以改变其形式。Avoid structure of this kind where possible.只要可能,就要避免这种结构。 (2) wherever引导的地点状语从句从属连词wherever“在(或到)……的各个地方”:You can go wherever(anywhere) you like these days.这些天你可以去你想去的地方。Where (Everywhere) they went, the experts were warmly welcomed.专家每到一处, 都受到热烈的欢迎。Sit down wherever you like. 你喜欢坐哪儿就坐哪儿。 3. 原因状语从句 (1) because引导的原因状语从句 because表示人们不知道的直接的原因或理由,着重点在从句,其所引导的从句,为全句句意的中心所在。通常用于回答why引出的疑问句,语气最强,除特别强调外,该从句一般位于主句后面。I didn’t go abrord with her because I couldn’t afford it.我没有和她一起出国是因为费用太高。Don’t scamp your work because you are pressed for time.不要因为时间仓促而马马虎虎。 (2) as引导的原因状语从句 as引导的原因状语从句所传递的通常是已知信息,从句多位于主句之前,通常可以和since换用。如:As I didn’t know the way,I asked a policeman.我不认识路,因而问警察。As it is snowing, we shall not climb the mountain.由于在下雪,我们不去爬山了。 (3) since引导的原因状语从句since引导的原因状语从句所传递的通常是已知信息,从句多位于主句之前,通常可以和as换用。如:Since traveling by air is much faster,they decided to take a plane.既然乘飞机旅行快得多,他们就决定坐飞机。Since you won’t help me ,I’ll ask someone else. 你既然不帮我,那我就请别人帮忙。 (4) now(that)引导的原因状语从句now(that)“因为;既然”,通常可以和since换用。其中that可省去,用来表示一种新的情况,再加以推论。如:Now(that) you?蒺ve passed your test you can drive on your own.你既已考试合格,就可以独自开车了。I do remember,now (that) you mention it.你这一提,我倒的确想起来了。 (5) seeing (that)引导的原因状语从句Seeing (that)“鉴于;由于”,通常用于非正式文体。如:Seeing (that) the weather is bad,we’ll stay at home. 天气不好,我们还是呆在家里吧。Seeing that he’ s ill,he’s unlikely to come. (6) in that引导的原因状语从句in that“因为;基于……的理由”,可以和because换用,多用于正式文体,它所引导的原因状语从句总是位于主句之后。如:Advertisement is distinguished from other forms of communication in that the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered. 广告不同于其他交际形式,因为登广告的人要为其所提供的信息付费。I’m in a slightly awkward position, in that he’s not arriving until 10th.我的处境有点难堪,因为他要十号才来。 4. 目的状语从句 (1) in order that引导的目的状语从句in order that“为了;以便”。多用于正式文体,通常可以与so that换用。如:You stopped at Hangzhou in order that they could go around West Lake.他们在杭州停了下来,以便游览西湖。The expert spoke slowly in order that everyone should understand.专家讲得很慢,以便人人听得懂。 (2) so (that)引导的目的状语从句so that“为了;以便”。so that通常可以与in order that换用,它所引导的目的状语从句总是放在主句之后,在非正式文体中,常省略that。如:Speak clearly so that they may understand you.你要讲得清楚,他们才听得懂。She wanted tea ready at seven so she could be out by eight.她要七点钟备好茶点,这样她八点以前就可以出门了。 (3) in case/for fear (that)/lest等引导的目的状语从句in case,for fear(that)和lest这三个从属连词都表示否定目的,意思是“以免”,“以防”。in case多用于英国英语,它所引导的从句中的谓语动词可以是陈述语气形式,也可以是虚拟语气形式;for fear(that)引导的从句中的谓语带有may,might,should等情态动词;lest用于正式文体,它所引导的从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气形式。如:Take your umbrella with you,lest it should rain. 带上你的伞,以防下雨。Take your umbrella in case it rains. 带上你的伞,以防下雨。He took an umbrella with him for fear that it might rain. 他带了一把伞,以防下雨。    第二章、状语从句(2)   1. 结果状语从句 (1) so that引导的结果状语从句 ① so that引导的结果状语从句只能位于主句之后,中间可以有逗号。如:Suddenly it began to rain heavily,so that it was almost impossible to carry on driving.突然下起了大雨,几乎无法继续开车。Linda phoned me in on arrival so that I know she was safe and sound.琳达到达后给我打了电话,因而我知道她平安无事。 ②“so that”既可引导结果状语从句也可引导目的状语从句。究竟是引导的结果状语从句还是目的状语从句,除了根据句意来判断外,还可根据结构形式来加以判断。若从句前有逗号,一般为结果状语从句,如果从句中有情态动词,通常则为目的状语从句。如:They started out early, so that they didn’t miss the train.他们早早就出发了,所以没误火车。(结果状语从句)They started out early so that they would not miss the train.他们早早出发是为了不误火车。(目的状语从句) (2) so...that引导的结果状语从句so...that“如此……以致”,that在非正式文体中可以省略,so后面接形容词或副词。如:She spoke so fast that nobody could catch what she was saying.她说话如此之快竟没有人听出来她在讲什么。There is so little time left that I have to tell you about it latter.现在剩下的时间不多了,我只好以后再给你讲这件事。 (3) such...that引导的结果状语从句引导结果状语从句的such...that的具体内容是:such+a/an+形容词+名词+that从句。其中的名词可以是可数名词的单数或复数,也可以是不可数名词。such+a/an+形容词+单数名词+that从句可换成so+形容词+a/an+单数名词+that从句。如:The Japanese student made such rapid progress that he soon began to write article in Chinese.那个日本留学生进步很快,不久就开始用中文写文章了。The professor told us such a funny story that all the students laughed.(=The professor told us so funny a story that all the students laughed.) 教授讲了个很有趣的故事,(以致于)所有的学生都笑了起来。 (4) such that引导的结果状语从句such that引导的结果状语从句多用于正式文体,主句为“主—系—表”句型。如:The force of the explosion was such that it blew out all the windows.爆炸的力量很大,所有的窗户都被炸掉了。His anger was such that he lost control of himself.他气得不能克制自己的感情。 2. 条件状语从句 (1) if引导的条件状语从句if可引导非真实条件状语从句(见“虚拟语气”)和真实条件状语从句。如:If he said that,he can’t be telling the truth. 如果他说了那样的话,他不可能是说实话。 (2) unless引导的条件状语从句unless引导的是否定条件状语从句,在意义上相当于if...not,而且语气较强,一般不用于虚拟语气。如:You’ll be late unless you hurry. 你会迟到的,如果不赶快的话。 (3) if only引导的条件状语从句if only在引导条件状语从句时意为“只要;如果”。如:I’ll let you use the car if only you keep it in good condition.只要你把车保养好,我就让你用。 (4) as/so long as引导的条件状语从句as/so long as意为“只要;如果”。如:As long as it doesn’t rain, we can play.只要不下雨我们就能玩。 (5) provided (that)/providing (that)引导的条件状语从句provided (that)/providing (that)意为“如果;只要”。如:I will agree to go provided’ providing (that my expense are paid.)假如为我负担费用,我就同意去。Providing you promise not to tell anyone else I’ll explain the secret. 3. 让步状语从句 (1) although/though引导的让步状语从句although和though,都作“虽然;尽管”解,通常可以换用,although的语气较重。如果要强调“但是”语气,可使用yet,still或nevertheless来表示“但是”、“依然”或“然而”之意。Although they have been talking for a long time, he cannot make her believe him.虽然和她谈了半天,他还是不能让她信任自己。 (2) even if引导的让步状语从句even if “即使,纵然”,从句表示的是尚未发生的动作或存在的情况。如:Even if it rains tomorrow,we won’t change our plan.即使明天下雨,我们也决不改变计划。Even if I failed again, I will not give up the experiment.即使我再次失败,我也决不会放弃实验。 (3) even though引导的让步状语从句even though“虽然,尽管”,从句所表示的是已经发生的动作或存在的情况,通常可以和although/though换用。如:Even though I didn’t understand a word,I kept smiling.即使我一个字也不懂,我还是保持微笑。Even though you say so,I do not believe it. 即使你这样说,我也不信。 (4) much as引导的让步状语从句much as“虽然,尽管”,通常可以和although/though换用:Much as I’d like to,I can’t come.我虽然很想来,但是来不了。Much as I admire his courage,I don’t think he acted wisely.我虽然佩服他的勇气,但我认为他这样做是不聪明的。 (5) while引导的让步状语从句while“虽然,尽管”,多用于正式文体,通常可换作although/though。如:While I understand your point of view,I do not share it.我虽了解你的观点,但不敢苟同。While I sympathize,I really can’t do very much to help.虽然我很同情,但我确实帮不了什么忙。 (6) whatever/no matter what引导的让步状语从句whatever和no matter what用法相同,都作“无论什么”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:Whatever/No matter what he says,don’t go. 不管他说什么,你都不要走。We are determined to fulfill the task,whatever/no matter what happens.不管发生什么了,我们决心完成任务。 (7) whichever/no matter which引导的让步状语从句whichever和no matter which用法相同,都作“无论哪个”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:Whichever/No matter which you buy, there is a six-month guarantee.不论你买哪个,都有六个月的保修期。Whichever/No matter which of the two men had stolen her purseBarbara was determined to find them. 不管这两个人是谁偷了她的钱包,芭芭拉决心找到他们。 (8) whoever/no matter who引导的让步状语从句whoever和no matter who用法相同,都作“无论谁”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:You can’t come in, whoever you are. 不管你是谁,都不能进来。Whoever/No matter who wants to speak to me on the phone, tell him I’m busy.不管谁要我接电话, 就说我现在正忙着呢。 (9) whereverno matter where引导的让步状语从句wherever和no matter where用法相同,都作“无论在(或到)哪里”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:Wherever/No matter where you go, I’m right here waiting fo ryou.无论你到哪里,我都依然在这里等着你。 (10) however/no matter how引导的让步状语从句however和no matter how用法相同,都作“无论如何……”解,后者多用于非正式文体。However much you regret doing that, there is nothing you can do about it now.无论你可能多么懊悔你曾经做过的事,现在也无济于事了。However high it may be,it can’t reach the sky. 它不论有多高,也高不到天上去。 (11) whenever/no matter when引导的让步状语从句whenever和no matter when用法相同,都作“无论何时”解,后者多用于非正式文体。如:Whenever I’m unhappy,he cheers me up.每当我不高兴时,他就给我鼓劲儿。 (12)(no matter) whether...or引导的让步状语从句whether...or和no matter whether...or用法相同,都作“不论……还是”解,后者的语气强一些。如:When it rains or not, we’re playing football on Sunday.无论下不下雨,我们星期天一定踢足球。 (13) as引导的让步状语从句as在引导让步状语从句时作“虽然;尽管”和“即使”解,但是它不位于句首,在它前面的可以是形容词、名词、副词等。如:Strong as you maybe, you cannot lift it.虽然你可能很有力气,你却无法把它提起来。Late as it was, they continued to study.时间尽管不早了,他们仍继续学习。 4. 方式状语从句 (1) as引导的方式状语从句as在引导方式状语从句时意为“以……方式;如同……那样”,从句有时是省略句。如:Do as I say. 要照我说的做。I did just as you told me. 我正是照你说的办的。Air is to man as water is to fish. 空气之于人犹如水之于鱼。 (2) as if/as though引导的方式状语从句as if和as though的用法相同,都作“好像,仿佛”解。如:二者引导的状语从句往往用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反。as if比as though更为常用。但也可用陈述语气,表示所说的情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。如:They looked at me as if ‘as though I were mad.他们瞧着我好像我发疯了似的。They look as if/as though they know each other.他们看来好像互相认识。 5. 比较状语从句 (1) as...as 引导的比较状语从句as...as表示同级比较,主句中用形容词或副词的原级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:We were as fortunate as them (they were)我们和他们一样幸运。I hope she will make as much progress as you (have done). 我希望她将取得和你同样的进步。 (2) not so/as...as 引导的比较状语从句not so/as...as表示同级比较,主句中用形容词或副词的原级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:That’s not so/as simple as it sounds. 那件事情不像听起来那么简单。 (3) than引导的比较状语从句than引导的比较状语从句表示同等比较,主句中用形容词或副词的比较级形式,从句常常为省略句。如:He has lived here longer than I(has lived).他在这儿住的时间比我长。They love the girl than(they love) him.他们爱这个女孩而不爱他。 (4) the..., the...引导的比较状语从句The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes.英语听得越多就越容易。The harder you work , the greater progress you will make.工作越努力,取得的进步就越大。

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